This past Saturday, Mikiyas and I wrapped up the last set of interviews here in Addis Ababa. All in all, we talked to 58 individuals from 9 different organizations. Their stories reflect a vast range of experiences, with some being very successful in their independent life and some still struggling to find work and shelter 8 years after they left care. For some interviews, we were able to go in depth and hear very personal stories of the transition process. Some interviews included a lot of participants and we were able to get a good idea of what the majority of youth are facing once they leave care.
Our last interview was at the headquarters of Service In Mission (SIM). The clinic director, Mary Vanderwal, has been doing volunteer work with young men who aged out of Kolfe--I wrote about her ministry a few weeks ago. Because of her good relationship with the boys, and because we were providing lunch, we expected a good turnout—maybe 8-10 participants. The line taxi pulled up with 18 men, aged 22-29, ready to talk about their experiences. Thank goodness we had enough food! Because we had so many participants, Mikiyas and I used the large-group interview model we developed for IOFA’s summer research. A young Ethiopian theology student, Tseyone, was also present and translated for me as Mikiyas facilitated the discussion.
Mikiyas first asked about the general experience of these Kolfe boys as they aged out of care. They said that the orphanage gave them a lump sum of money and then basically turned them loose. The boys had no idea how to budget or manage finances, and this money was gone within a month, without the boys securing a job our housing. Many of them lived with friends or in khat houses*, which now rent rooms. The boys may have completed their public education, but received no vocational training or support to attend a university or college.
Mikiyas then broke the boys into 3 small groups and asked them to discuss three different topics: the primary challenges they faced once they left the orphanage, how they managed to provide for themselves, and the kind of support available to them once they left. The young men were instructed to write down their experiences and elect a representative to report back to the larger group. This is what we heard:
|Talking about the transition experience in small groups|
- Primary Challenges: “Because they know we are from the orphanage, the society doesn’t trust us. They think that we are all criminals.” “Landlords won’t rent to us, businesses won’t employ us.” “We pretend that we have families so that we can get work, but someone always finds out. Once they know we are from the orphanage, they will find a reason to fire us.” “We can’t even get an ID card*. Without an ID card, how are we supposed to get a job?”
- Self-Sufficiency: “We can get some work in day labor.” “We stay with friends, mostly other boys from the orphanage.” “We don’t have a choice where we stay. I have to be careful because I can’t always trust the people I stay with. I have had many things stolen.” “We don’t know how to cook, and we don’t always have a kitchen. Mostly, I eat food I buy on the street.”
- Family and Social Support: “Our families don’t help us.” “I found my aunt and uncle, but they wouldn’t let me stay in their house or give me money for my education.” “Our brothers are in the orphanage, or are outside with us. They are our only family.” “We try to support each other, but none of us has much to give the others.” “Our family didn’t welcome us. Society didn’t welcome us. Only addiction welcomed us.”
After these presentations, Mikiyas brought out a posterboard with a drawing of a soccer goal. The goal, he explained, stood for success in their independent life. We then passed out small paper soccer balls and blue stickie notes. The boys were instructed to write a goal that they had for their lives on the stickie notes, attach the note to a soccer ball and place the ball either on the poster (if the goal had been achieved) or outside the poster (if their attempts had failed so far). After the boys “scored” their goals, we handed out red stickie notes and green stickie notes. The red stickie notes were for the balls outside the poster—those goals that had not been achieved. The green stickie notes were for the goals that had been realized. On the red stickie notes, the boys were instructed to write the obstacles that kept them from achieving each of their goals. On the green stickie notes, they were asked to write down the support that made their achievements possible. They then were told to pair the red and green stickie notes to the appropriate soccer balls.
Many of the balls outside of the poster had to do with finding stable work, having a place to stay, and having a family one day. The challenges that were most often named stemmed from systemic issues: there weren’t enough jobs available, the boys don’t have proper vocational training, etc. Many of the balls on the poster (achievements) were social in nature—many had found friends outside the orphanage, and some had even found romantic partners. These successes were attributed to the boys own personalities, patience, and hard work.
After the interview session wrapped up, the boys were invited to lunch in the common area. We went through 25 injera, 2 pots of lamb stew, and 2 big bowls of vegetable wot. All of the participants told us that they found the interview process extremely helpful. It was good, they said, to have somewhere safe to go and discuss their lives and the challenges they face. Usually, they only come together in bars and khat houses. They also appreciated that people were actually interested in their experience and that work was being done to help other children. “Our lives are difficult, they will always be difficult,” one young man said. “But it is important that our younger brothers [still in the orphanage] don’t have the same experience.”
*Khat houses are places in Addis where young men can smoke shisha & marijuana, drink, and chew khat. These establishments often offer a place to sleep and some food for a low price because they make money on the addictive substances they sell.
*In order to get an ID card in Ethiopia, you have to have a permanent residence and someone to vouch for you, to provide a “guarantee.” The person who provides the guarantee must also have an ID card and be willing to have some sort of legal connection to you. Because these young men don’t have either, they cannot get an ID card. Without an ID card, they cannot enroll in educational/vocational programs or apply for the majority of jobs.